9p's of marketing

Marketing Overview

Introduction

There are a number of important strategic philosophies and practices which guide Marketing planning, branding concepts and tools, Marketing variables, efforts and/or Marketing relationships/partnerships/ alliances.

The Nine P’s/9P’s of Marketing can be used successfully by product companies, service firms, for profits entities and nonprofits “selling” directly or indirectly to consumers (B2C), to marketing intermediaries (such as industrial, consumer, retail, wholesale and professional channels of distribution), and to other businesses (B2B).

As Management guru Peter F. Drucker once said:

"The aim of Marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him (her/it) and sells itself."

In the study and practice of Marketing, Marketing and Brand Managers develop plans, strategies and tactics. The Nine P’s include these important components:

  • Planning and Research
  • People (Segmentation and Targeting)
  • Product/Service
  • Place (Distribution)
  • Price
  • Promotion, with eight components
  • Partners
  • Presentation
  • Passion

Larry Steven Londre is a Forensic Marketing Expert, Advertising Expert, Business, Marketing and Advertising consultant with Londre Marketing Consultants, LLC plus he teaches Marketing, advertising and business strategies¹. I own a copyright for this concept, the Nine P’s/9 P’s ©2007, which augments the Marketing Mix and 4P’s by the American Marketing Association, Neil Borden and Jerome McCarthy in the study and practices of Marketing.

The Marketing concept of the 9P’s helps identify marketing problems plus opportunities in a number of areas and helps develop marketing’s objectives, strategies, tactics and solutions. I consult and teach using the concepts and practices of the Nine P’s/9P’s of Marketing.

¹ Larry Steven Londre has taught and presented in undergraduate and graduate programs at the University of Southern California (Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, and Marshall School of Business), California State University, Northridge (CSUN), Loyola Marymount, Pepperdine University and others.


 

Marketing

For all those who want to find out more about marketing–whether you’re in a job that involves marketing or not, the following will begin to answer the question: What is marketing?

There is plenty more here, which includes additional resources.

Marketing is the process by which companies create value for customers and build strong customer relationships in order to capture value from customers in return. (Principles of Marketing, 16e, Kotler and Armstrong, 2016)

Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. (Definition approved by the American Marketing Association, Board of Directors, July 2013².

Marketing: The activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. (Marketing Management 15e, Kotler and Keller, 2016)

Marketing Management is the art and science of choosing target markets and building profitable relationships with them. (Principles of Marketing, 16e, Kotler and Armstrong, 2016)

The aim of Marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him (her/it) and sells itself. (Peter F. Drucker)

Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. The previous definition:

  • Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders. The American Marketing Association (established in 1937 by visionaries in marketing and academia) unveiled their definition used as the official definition in books, by marketing professionals and taught in universities. The American Marketing Association revisits the definition for marketing every five years in a disciplined effort to reflect on the state of the marketing field. This process, as laid out in the Association’s bylaws, is guided by a committee whose members represent a cross-section of the marketing industry; the committee was formed in late 2006, under the leadership of Donald R. Lehmann, the George E. Warren Professor of Business at Columbia Business School in New York.

The Marketing Concept is a philosophy. It makes the customer, and the satisfaction of his or her needs, the focal point of all business activities. It is driven by senior managers who are passionate about delighting their customers. Marketing is not only much broader than selling; it is not a specialized activity at all. It encompasses the entire business. It is the whole business seen from the point of view of the final result, that is, from the customer’s point of view. Concern and responsibility for marketing must therefore permeate all areas of the enterprise. (Peter F. Drucker)

Marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and freely exchanging products and services of value with others. (Philip Kotler)

Marketing is getting the right product or service to the right people (target market), at the right time, at the right place, at the right price, with the right partners, plus right communication, promotion and presentation.

Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy the perceived needs, wants, and objectives of individuals and organizations. (Contemporary Advertising, 14e, Arens, Weigold, Arens, 2013)

Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of goods and services to facilitate exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. (Understanding Business, Nickels, McHugh, McHugh, 2008)

Marketing is the performance of activities that seek to accomplish an organization’s objectives by anticipating customer or client needs and directing a flow of need-satisfying goods and services from producer to customer or client. (Basic Marketing, A Marketing Planning Approach, 19 Edition, Perreault, Cannon and McCarthy, 2014)

Marketing is the process of creating, distributing, promoting and pricing goods, services, and ideas to facilitate satisfying exchange relationships with consumers and to develop and maintain favorable relationships with shareholders in a dynamic environment. (Foundations of Marketing, Third Edition, Pride and Ferrell, 2009)

The AMA (American Marketing Association) defines Marketing as the “Activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.” This definition takes into account all parties involved in the marketing effort: members of the producing organization, resellers of goods and services, and customers or clients. (A Preface To Marketing Management, 13 edition, J. Paul Peter, James H. Donnelly, Jr. 2012)

Marketing is the process of conceiving, pricing, promoting and distributing ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that benefit consumers and organizations. (Advertising & Integrated Brand Promotion, 5e, O’Guinn, Allen, Semenik, 2009)

The purpose of Marketing is to sell more stuff to more people more often for more money in order to make more profit. (Sergio Zyman)

The Mantra of Marketing: Marketing’s job is to create, communicate and deliver value to a target market at a profit. Market Management needs to “Create Value,” “Communicate Value,” and “Deliver Value.” There are three businesses here: Product Management; Brand Management; and Customer Management. (Kotler at London Business Forum)

Marketing Mix is the combination of four elements, called the 4P’s (Product, Price, Promotion and Place), that every company has the option of adding, subtracting, or modifying in order to create a desired marketing strategy. (Philip Kotler)

The Marketing Mix is the set of tactical marketing tools that the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market. (Principles of Marketing, 16e, Kotler and Armstrong, 2016)

Marketing Process consists of:

  1. Analyzing opportunities
  2. Developing marketing strategies
  3. Planning marketing programs
  4. Managing the marketing effort

² American Marketing Association, "About AMA: Definition of Marketing," https://www.ama.org/AboutAMA/Pages/Definition-of-Marketing.aspx (cited May 28, 2014)


 

Consumer/Business-to-Business (B2B)/Nonprofit/International or Global Marketing/Internal Marketing/ Integrated Marketing (IMC)

Consumer Marketing occurs when organizations sell to individuals or households that buy, consume, and dispose of products.

Business-to-Business Marketing occurs when a business purchases goods or services to produce other goods, to support daily operations, or to resell at a profit.

Nonprofit Marketing occurs when an organization does not try to make a profit but instead attempts to influence others to support its cause by using its service or by making a contribution.

Global or International Marketing consists of the activity, institutions, and processes across national borders that create, communicate, deliver, and exchange offerings that have value for stakeholders and society. International marketing has forms ranging from export–import trade to licensing, joint ventures, wholly owned subsidiaries, turnkey operations, and management contracts. (International Marketing, 9th Edition, Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2010)

Internal Marketing occurs when managers of one functional unit market their capabilities to other units within their own organization. (Marketing, Connecting with Customers, Harrrell, 8e, 2008)

Integrated Marketing is when all departments of a firm work together to serve the needs of the customer.

Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) and Coordinating Media As defined by the American Association of Advertising Agencies, Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) “a planning process designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a customer or prospect for a product, service, or organization are relevant to that person and consistent over time.” This planning process evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communications disciples–for example, general advertising, direct response, sales promotion and public relations–and skillfully combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency and maximum impact through the seamless integration of messages. IMC is the process of using promotional tools in a unified way so that a synergistic communications effect is created. Media coordination can occur across and within media types, but marketers should combine personal and nonpersonal communications channels through multiple-vehicle, multiple-stage campaigns to achieve maximum impact and increase message reach and impact. (Marketing Management 14e, Kotler and Keller, 2012)

Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) is defined as a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive marketing planning that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communications disciplines–for example, advertising, direct response, sales promotion, and public relations–and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communications impact. (Belch and Belch)

  • Audiences and specific target audiences are becoming more sophisticated and empowered in their media usage and consumption. With more media outlets and channels offering new ways to promote and communicate, many businesses struggle with fragmented messages across traditional, digital and social media avenues. The brand is what “they” say you are. Communicate the brand “value” or “values,” what makes “your” brand special in the marketplace.

IMC is the process of using promotional tools in a unified way so that a synergistic communications effect is created. (Advertising & Integrated Brand Promotion, 5e, O’Guinn, Allen, Semenik, 2009)

For more on ideas, concepts and Marketing solutions: Go to Londre Marketing’s “Marketing Library” and the 9P’s/Nine P’s ©2007. Specifically you will find them detailed at 9P’s/Nine P’s.

Londre’s Teaching, Presenting and Seminars, include the Nine/9P’s of Marketing:

Concurrently, for 35+ years, taught and presented in undergraduate and graduate programs at the University of Southern California (Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, and Marshall School of Business), California State University, Northridge (CSUN), Loyola Marymount, Pepperdine University and others.

Courses, over 79 semesters, have included:

  • MBAM 659 and MBAM 660: Business Strategies Development, Execution and Implementation (Final, capstone classes in the MBA program at Pepperdine)
  • MBFE 658: Strategic Marketing
  • MKT 653: Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)
  • MBAM 619A and 619B: Business Strategies and Implementation
  • COMM 542: Business Strategies for Entertainment and Communication Companies
  • COMM 541: Integrated Media and Communication Strategies
  • GSBA 528: Marketing Management
  • MKT 440: Integrated Marketing Communications
  • JOUR 340: Introduction to Advertising
  • BUS 307: Marketing Management
  • MKT 304: Marketing Management
  • MKT 100: Conceptual Foundations of American Enterprise
  • COMM 599: Global Communication

Frequent guest lecturer in Marketing, Branding, Consumer Behavior, Advertising, Business Strategies and Global Marketing & Media:

  • UCLA School of Television, Film and Digital Media, “Trends in Television and Emergence of Multiplatform Media” and “Television & New Media: Business and Legal Issues”
  • California State University, Northridge (CSUN), College of Business and Economics (graduate and under graduate); American Marketing Association chapter-numerous times
  • California Lutheran University/CLU, Orange Coast College, Advertising Center
  • Pepperdine University’s Center for Communication and Business, including Advertising capstone class, Com 590: Senior Seminar in Communication
  • USC Marshall » Lloyd Greif Center for Entrepreneurial Studies program, and Marshall School of Business
  • USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts & Sciences, “Principles of Consumer Psychology,” in the Master’s Human Behavior program
  • FEWA (Forensic Expert Witness Association)
  • USC Gould School of Law Alumni Association
  • UCLA School of Law
  • Southwestern School of Law
  • Loyola Law School
  • Growth Consultants & Leading Grow Wise Forums/STAR Business Consulting, Inc. Top Line Revenue Group

Have conducted Marketing and Business Strategies Classes/Seminars/Workshops/Webinars in USA, China, Hong Kong, Cuba and on the web. The classes, seminars, workshops and webinars have included:

  • “Power Marketing & Advertising: Planning, Developing and Executing Global Strategies,” Shanghai, China, 2004
  • “Effective & Efficient Marketing, Strategies & Promotions,” California Small Business Success Conferences, May 2007
  • “Understanding Branding, Blending Push & Pull Strategies, with Integrated and Global Communication Examples, 2011 and 2013”
  • “Best Global Marketing Tips, Techniques & Tactics for Marketing Executives in 2011”
  • “Cuba: Insights, Keys and Observations in its Marketing and Advertising,” 2012
  • “Global Marketing & Advertising, including Planning, Tips, Tactics and Best Practices, 2009”
  • “Marketing, Branding, Promotion, Advertising, Push & Pull, Integrated Communication & Global Examples,” for American Marketing Association (AMA), CSUN chapter, 2012
  • “Getting an Interview. Landing a Job. Practical, Insightful, Timely Advice and Counsel,” for American Marketing Association (AMA), CSUN chapter, 2013
  • “Effective Targeting with the Nine P’s for a Great 2014,” for Growth Consultants & Leading Grow Wise Forums/STAR Business Consulting, Inc., Top Line Revenue Group, 2013
  • “People”/Targeting, Business Life Lessons, Nine P’s, New Products, Customization, Planning for 2014” for USC Marshall » Lloyd Greif Center for Entrepreneurial Studies program,” in 2013
  • USC Gould School of Law Alumni Association Speaker Series “Confusion between Marketing & Advertising: What difference does it make to Judges and Lawyers?” Approved State Bar of California, Continuing Legal Education (CLE credit), 2014
  • “Is this Marketing? Advertising? Promotion? Sales Promotion? The Nine P’s of Marketing & More,” at UCLA School of Law, 2013
  • “Confusion between Marketing & Advertising: What is Marketing? Advertising? Use of Media and Social Media. Plenty of Examples” at UCLA’s graduate class, Television & New Media: Business and Legal Issues, 2014; plus a revised version at Loyola School of Law, 2014
  • “Understanding Marketing, Branding, IMC (Integrated Marketing Communications), Promotion, Advertising, Push & Pull. With Global Examples,” at Pepperdine’s Business and Communication IMC class, September, 2014
  • “Courting, Cross Selling and Cross Promoting: Pumping up the Pipeline in the Expert Witness Community,” at FEWA (Forensic Expert Witness Association) meeting and panel, November, 2014